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What is a mortgage and why do I need one?


When it comes to purchasing real estate, most buyers require financial assistance in the form of mortgages. A mortgage allows individuals to acquire property by borrowing money from a lender and paying it back over an agreed-upon period. The mortgage market offers various types of loans tailored to meet different needs. In this post, we will explore the top five most commonly used mortgages for buying real estate and highlight their key features.


  1. Conventional Mortgage:

The conventional mortgage is the most popular type of loan used for real estate purchases. It is not backed by any government agency, such as the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) or the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Instead, conventional mortgages are issued by private lenders and banks. To qualify for a conventional mortgage, borrowers typically need good credit scores, stable employment history, and a down payment of at least 3% to 20% of the purchase price. Interest rates for conventional mortgages can vary based on market conditions and the borrower's creditworthiness.

  1. FHA Loan:

The Federal Housing Administration (FHA) loan is designed to assist first-time homebuyers and individuals with lower credit scores or limited down payment funds. The FHA insures these loans, which allows lenders to offer more favorable terms to borrowers. The key advantages of FHA loans include lower down payment requirements (as low as 3.5% of the purchase price), more flexible credit requirements, and potentially lower interest rates. However, FHA loans also require mortgage insurance premiums, both upfront and annually, which can increase the overall cost of the loan.

  1. VA Loan:

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) loan is exclusively available to eligible veterans, active-duty service members, and surviving spouses. VA loans are guaranteed by the VA and offer several benefits, including no down payment requirements, competitive interest rates, and no mortgage insurance premiums. The eligibility criteria for VA loans are strict, focusing on service requirements and discharge status. These loans are an excellent option for those who have served or are serving in the military and want to purchase a home.

  1. USDA Loan:

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) loan is targeted at rural and suburban homebuyers who meet certain income and location criteria. USDA loans offer 100% financing, meaning no down payment is required, and provide affordable interest rates. To qualify for a USDA loan, borrowers must meet income limits based on the area's median income, purchase a property in an eligible rural or suburban area, and have a credit score that meets the lender's requirements. The USDA loan program aims to promote homeownership in less densely populated areas.

  1. Jumbo Loan:

Jumbo loans are used for high-value properties that exceed the conforming loan limits set by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, the two government-sponsored enterprises that buy and sell mortgages. These loans allow borrowers to finance homes with a purchase price exceeding the limit (typically above $548,250, but it can vary by location). Jumbo loans typically require higher down payments, strong credit scores, and lower debt-to-income ratios. Interest rates for jumbo loans are generally slightly higher compared to conventional loans.


When it comes to purchasing real estate, mortgages provide the necessary financial support for most buyers. Understanding the various types of mortgages available is crucial to finding the best fit for your needs and financial situation. The top five most commonly used mortgages—conventional, FHA, VA, USDA, and jumbo—each offer unique features and eligibility requirements. By exploring these options and consulting with a knowledgeable lender, potential homebuyers can make informed decisions and secure the mortgage that suits them best. Remember, it's essential to carefully evaluate your financial situation and consider long-term affordability before committing to any mortgage.


Apollo Advising along with the support of our partner Fiduciary Financing can help you identify the right loan for your goals.

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